What to know about melatonin?

Melatonin is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in your brain. This hormone helps regulate your sleep-wake cycle, and it is critical for getting a good night’s rest. Melatonin supplements are commonly used to treat sleep disorders and some other health conditions. If you are considering using melatonin supplements, then there are a few important things that you should know. In this article, we will discuss what melatonin is, how it works, and the major health benefits and risks associated with this hormone.

What is Melatonin?

Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland, a small gland located in the brain. It primarily regulates the body’s circadian rhythms, which are physical, mental, and behavioral changes that follow a roughly 24-hour cycle, responding primarily to light and darkness in an organism’s environment. Endogenous melatonin release (melatonin produced by the body) is increased each day in response to darkness, peaking between 11 pm and 3 am, and gradually decreases with exposure to light. The synthesis and release of melatonin are stimulated by darkness and suppressed by light, suggesting that melatonin is involved in the regulation of the biological clock.

How Does Melatonin Work?

The primary role of melatonin is the regulation of the body’s circadian rhythms. Melatonin is primarily produced during the nighttime (when it is dark) and suppressed during the daytime (when it is light). This regulation allows us to feel awake during the day and tired at night.

Melatonin and Sleep

Melatonin helps regulate your body’s internal clock and promote healthy sleep. Many people take melatonin supplements to help them fall asleep more easily and stay asleep longer. Melatonin supplements work by increasing the levels of the hormone in your body, tricking your brain into thinking that it’s time to sleep. This can lead to improved sleep quality and better overall health. However, it is important to note that melatonin supplements should only be taken under the advice of a healthcare professional.

Melatonin and Jet Lag

Jet lag is a common problem for people who travel across different time zones. It occurs when your internal clock is out of sync with the local time, causing changes in your sleep and waking patterns. Melatonin can be used to help reset your body’s internal clock and reduce the symptoms of jet lag. Studies have shown that taking melatonin supplements can reduce the time it takes for travelers to fall asleep and improve overall sleep quality.

Health Benefits of Melatonin

Sleep Disorders

Melatonin supplements are commonly used to treat sleep disorders such as insomnia or sleep disorders caused by shift work, jet lag or circadian rhythm disorders. Melatonin can help you fall asleep faster, stay asleep longer, and improve the quality of your sleep. However, it is important to note that melatonin supplements should only be taken under the advice of a healthcare professional.

Headaches and Migraines

Melatonin can also help relieve headaches and migraines. Studies have shown that melatonin supplements can reduce the frequency and intensity of headaches and migraines. This may be due to the hormone’s ability to reduce inflammation and promote relaxation.

Cancer Prevention

Melatonin has been shown to have anti-cancer properties. Studies have found that melatonin can trigger cancer cells to undergo apoptosis, or programmed cell death. Melatonin has also been shown to inhibit the growth of cancer cells in vitro and in animal studies. However, more research is needed to confirm these findings and to determine the optimal dose and timing of melatonin supplementation.

Risks Associated with Melatonin


Melatonin can cause drowsiness and fatigue, which can be dangerous if you need to drive or operate heavy machinery. It is important to avoid taking melatonin supplements before driving or engaging in other activities that require alertness.

Hormonal Imbalance

Melatonin is an important natural hormone, and taking supplements can interfere with your body’s natural production of the hormone. This can potentially disrupt your body’s natural hormone balance and lead to other health problems.

Interactions with Medications

Melatonin can interact with certain medications, including blood thinners, antidepressants, and certain medications used to treat high blood pressure. It is important to speak with your doctor before taking melatonin supplements if you are taking any prescription medications.

Dosage and Administration

The optimal dose of melatonin varies from person to person depending on factors such as age, weight, and health status. It is important to speak with your doctor before taking melatonin supplements. They can advise you on the appropriate dose and timing of melatonin supplementation to help you achieve the best possible results.


Melatonin supplements can be a useful tool for improving sleep quality, treating headaches and migraines, and potentially preventing cancer. However, it is important to use them under the guidance of a healthcare professional due to the risks and side effects associated with these supplements. If you have any questions about melatonin supplements, speak with your doctor or a qualified healthcare provider.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • What is melatonin?
  • How does melatonin work?
  • What are the health benefits of melatonin?
  • Are there any risks associated with taking melatonin supplements?
  • Can melatonin be used to treat headaches and migraines?
  • Can melatonin prevent cancer?
  • What should I know before taking melatonin supplements?
  • How much melatonin should I take?
  • Can melatonin supplements interact with other medications?


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  • Srinivasan, V., Pandiā€Perumal, S. R., Spence, D. W., Moscovitch, A., Brown, G. M., & Cardinali, D. P. (2009). Melatonin and sleep in aging population. Experimental gerontology, 44(1-2), 51-66.
  • Watson, N. F., Badr, M. S., Belenky, G., Bliwise, D. L., Buxton, O. M., Buysse, D., … & Tasali, E. (2015). Joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society on the recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult: methodology and discussion. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 11(8), 931-952.