What body system does motor neurone disease affect?

If you’re like most people, the mention of Motor Neurone Disease (MND) may not immediately ring a bell. However, it is a medical condition that affects many individuals every year. In this article, we will be taking an in-depth look at what body system MND affects and how it can impact those who suffer from it.

Introduction to MND

Before we dive into discussing what parts of the body are affected by MND, let’s take some time to understand what exactly this disease is all about.

In simple terms, Motor Neurone Disease (MND) refers to a group of progressive neurological disorders that primarily affect the nerves which control voluntary movement. This means that someone with MND starts to experience weakness and difficulty in moving their limbs or any other part of their body they wish to move voluntarily.

There are several different types of motor neurone diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Primary Lateral Sclerosis (PLS), Progressive Bulbar Palsy (PBP), and Progressive Muscular Atrophy (PMA). Each type has varying symptoms and levels of severity but they share similar underlying causes – damage to the nerve cells controlling muscle movements.

Understanding Nervous Systems

To better grasp why certain diseases affect specific areas within our bodies while others don’t target them at all requires some knowledge about nervous systems – specifically somatic vs autonomic nervous systems (ANS).

The Somatic Nervous System

This part OF ANS controls muscles responsible for movement as well as sensory receptors throughout our skin and joints sending signals back TO THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM(central CNS)

The Autonomic Nervous System

On the other hand,the autonomic NS is sub-divided INTO SYMPATHETIC AND PARASYMPATHETIC nervous systems depending on their function. The sympathetic NS prepares our body for fight or flight-like situations while the parasympathetic helps to conserve energy by slowing down heart rate and stimulating digestion.

How MND Affects the Body

Now that we have established some background knowledge about nervous systems, let’s proceed to look at how Motor Neurone Disease affects the human body.

Neuromuscular Junction

Firstly, it is essential to understand a concept neuromuscular junction (NMJ)-the site where motor nerve cells connect with muscle fibres . This is because when someone is diagnosed with MND, these NMJs start getting affected progressively leading TO IMPAIRED SIGNALING BETWEEN MOTOR NERVES AND muscles cells responsible FOR movements. Over time this process leads TO gradual muscular weakness OVER THE YEARS IN limbs , trunks as well as respiratory muscles EVENTUALY leading TO DEATH .

Upper Motor Neurons(AKAs)

Upper motor neurons (UMN) refer to those located in brain area responsible for initiating voluntary movement signals while Lower Motor Neuron(LMN)- refers to are located in spinal cord which pass on these signals from CNS central nervous system.

The UMN damage can lead people suffering FROM difficulty beginning movements or experiencing slow movements due to weak signaling initiate VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS.many researches carried out indicated upper neuron system problem affecting more parts of the body compared lower neuronal lesions.

In contrast, individuals living with LMN damage find it difficult moving specific areas of their bodies such legs and arms regions which become paralyzed over their lifetimes especially after onset OF DISEASES LIKE POLIO,MUSCULAR ATROPHY etc.Most popular types OF LMN disorder include but not limited infact many dieseases qualify under this category-Toxic substances exposure like heavy metals eg:lead poisoning ,Hereditary disorders( eg dwarfism),Muscle diseases like Muscular dystrophy

Respiratory System

Motor Neurone Disease affects the respiratory system leading to difficulties in breathing. It’s a gradual process that happens over time, and it eventually leads to death. Diaphragm-a indispensable structure of respiratory organ is mainly affected due its muscle structures ending up with diaphragmatic paralysis.

When someone has MND, their body shows another slow decline IN Lung Function . In fact ,over time this reduction can be progressive which makes individuals’ lives much harder.A Tracheostomy-incision is also needed for some patients where they require long-term ventilation IMPROVEMENT OF THEIR BREATHING capabilities .

Furthermore,Majority( about 85%) suffer from dysphagia on different stages ON disease progression through impairment of pharyngeal [swallowing] muscles resulting incapacity which may lead-aspiration pneumonia.

Conclusion: What To Take Away

In conclusion, Motor Neurone Disease (MND) primarily affects the nervous system responsible for voluntary movement signals – including both upper and lower motor neurons throughout our bodies as well as neuromuscular junctions connecting them with respective musculoskeletal fibres
Additionally,the disease significantly impacts the respiratory functions making it difficult or impossible TO breathe independentely-may need intervention BY DAILY CARE GIVERS.Patients experience muscular weakness at initial stages later maturing into complete paralysis basically involving trunk,lungs.Hand STRENGTHG THUS effecting daily living activities.IT’S life threatening confines majority within five years after onset making valuable researches essential tool FOR UNDERSTANDING ITS ETIOPATHOLOGIES AND INTERVENTIONS.