Nervous system and how it works?

So, you think you know everything about the nervous system? Think again! Buckle up because this wild ride will take you on a nerve-wracking journey deep into the depths of your brain. From neurons to synapses, from reflexes to emotions, we’ll cover it all! So put on your thinking cap and let’s dive in!

What is the Nervous System?

The nervous system is like the conductor of an orchestra; it controls every aspect of our body’s functions by sending electrical signals (nerve impulses) through a complex network of nerves that work together seamlessly.


There are two main parts to the nervous system:

  1. Central Nervous System(CNS)

This consists primarily of the brain and spinal cord.

  1. Peripheral Nervous System(PNS)

This part comprises all other nerves throughout your body that connect to both motor outputs(like moving a limb), sensory inputs(feelings like touch, temperature or pain).

More about CNS

The central nervous system(CNS) includes the brain & spinal cord which joins nearly 100 billion assets inside one human skull for cognition & physiology functioning unlike any entity.It receives information via peripheral nerves and then organizes&interprets data gathered.This ability allows us when experienced with any stimulation/low-level changes adapt ourselves accordingly.The Spinal Cord links almost every neuron within our bodies as well as receiving toxins,blood sugar levels etc constantly.Then for minute processes it sends ‘controlled responses’stored in ASSEMBLED BRIN/MEMORY linked sections called ‘Muscle Memory’.

Neurons carry messages between these two systems creating brain-body communication.CSN also interprets what senses feedback.As simple examples,sight(sound/smell/touch etc),emotions(happiness/sadness).These can be perceived by different regions of our vibrant and brilliant brains.

PNS and its connection with CNS

The peripheral nervous system(PNS) contains thousands of nerves that connect various organs, muscles, and glands to the brain.These are divided into three categories; sensory(receives impulses and sends them to the spinal cord); motor(carries impulses from the spinal cord back to muscles/glands/organs in your body)and autonomic(involuntary functions like heartbeat/respiration/digestion).

PNS (Peripheral Nervous System) reports relative changes in stimuli,body position(morning stretches anyone?) or chemical levels.How else would we recall a 50 year old perfume someone wore when asked? This is where many subjective experiences take place.This communication happens via Ganglia(nerves bundled together)sending electrical ‘pulses’ as synapses(glue between neurons).These synapses send signals electrically(through gaps called synapse clefts/vesicles filled with adrenalin etc released mechanically)
or chemically(release neurotransmitters like dopamine/serotonin etc through Acetylcholine receptors).

In short,Central Nervous System rules all voluntarily whilst Peripheral nervour systems function involuntarily but positively support cranial & spinal movements(e.g human reflexes when sleeper stepped on let’s say: brick)

The Neurons – Communication Masters

Think of a neuron as a courier service for delivering important messages. They carry nerve impulses throughout the entire body. Most cells within this framework are quite different than other cells around us. A crucial feature, which distinguishes it from usual cells is their ability to transmit information just like an intellectual mobile network provider since these can regenerate(depending situation),individual unit co-ordinations / complex signaling/nucleus-less parts makes themselves superior.

There are three main components of every neuron:

  1. Soma(cell body): Regulates irregularities
  2. Dendrites(response receivers): Picks up pulses from stimulated cells/neurons or axons.
  3. Axon: Enormous communication lines which architect designs signal flow/communication within neurons

Neurons work like interconnected mobile network providers with a unique ability to communicate via specialised signalling pathways,through use of neurotransmitters and hormones.Electrical charges passing through each neuron trigger the release of Small-Vesicles as they come quite close to each other called Synapsis(critical point where Hormones/electric signals are released) allowing different messages to travel back and forth from one neuron into another.

More about Neurons & How They Work

With an unimaginable speculations worldwide neurone transmit information at rates faster than any man-made technology possible.Let me give you some perspective; An average speed for an information pulse performed by Neuron is 120m/s(Question -How many Kmph?) Nevertheless imagine,hundreds of such Millions communicating through synapse daily creating uncountable tens – hundreds- zillions exchanges globally simultaneously! That’s why brain stores were invented!

Here’s how it works:

  1. It begins when a stimulus is detected by dendrites located on the surface of a neuron (often triggered by external factors).

  2. Once stimulated, ions inside the cell change concentration causing the flow of ions out/in between Dendrite-Axon resulting in electric changes alongside surrounding chemicals(Sodium / Potassium). Which explains self propagation(fraction seconds)

  3. This electrical impulse travels down towards towards AXON(tail end part), hence this becomes responsible for carrying messages from nerve cells since surrounded actin proteins prevent being leaked out.So yes,No synapse till now!!!

4.Synaptic Vesicles form small useful containers that carry Neurotransmitters.Interestingly, it has been researched that these replenish themselves periodically(Mayo Clinic(US))
once low level quantities have been sensed!Isn’t our body smart?

5.Nothing but Chemical triggers causes cross-flow through synapse once pre-synaptic neurons were charged up with electrical switches/Axon guidance.

First signal reaches cell body, then it craves this continuity-based series of messages which arise after stimuli are sent from multiple release sites.Site Detection Zones are where we remember certain point/feeling in our bodies(specific part), these can change too.These also determine a specific response sensory/motor reflexes etc( e.g people defining their appetite for spicy food)

How Signals Move Through the Nervous System

The nervous system is complex but how signals move through it, isn’t. Let’s break them down into steps;

  1. It starts when your senses catch some stimulation (anything that cause receptors to create an impulse).
  2. A stimulus acquired by any receptor travels across the peripheral nerve towards CNS or spinal cord.
    3 .Once reaching there,a neural pathway formed work out what needs to be done next(stimulus-integration-response cycle).
    4.The brain sends signals back down to appropriate nerves responding displaying physical movements,cognition responses e.g intuitive actions(No thinking process required here.)
    5.This entire thing happens at such a fast pace,

For example- Imagine you’re touching something hot! Your skin receives heat from object & triggers impulses.STOP!INHIBIT PROCESS,HELP!!! These continuous feedback mechanisms or reflex arcs(Emotional states) help us withdraw hand before complete cognition takes place(e,g pain=heat/hot-i.e mind over matter).

Disorders of the Nervous System

Now that we know more about how our nervous system works let’s now take a look at common neuro-disorders:

Parkinson’s Disease

This is due to degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in mid-brain area.Responsible for controlling movement leading symptoms like tremors,stiffness,fatigue.Later stages can have psychiatric features too(cognitive decline/dementia/depression).

Alzheimer’s Disease

This is due to misfolded protein accumulating in-between neurons forming harmful plaques causing nerve transmission disruption leading to symptoms like memory loss,personality changes,behavioral problems.


Epilepsy caused by a sudden burst of electrical activity in the brain leading fast bodily movements that characterise an epileptic attack.These can be subjective & not involve every person.Description means ‘uncontrollable fits’ which are hard for family members or loved ones watching these types of seizures come over people with epilepsy. These can cause anxiety and panic attacks as well.


From sensory inputs and responses(which defines multiple involuntary actions happening right under our noses each day.When you deeply think about how nervous system works one thing becomes clear; it’s incredibly complex yet highly efficient! Although there have been incidents where humans performed superhuman feats simply because their body wasn’t sending response signals due high levels of adrenaline thus suppressing analgesia .

The human mind has proved time after time why we stand at the top of the evolutionary chain.The neurological complexities coupled up exciting discoveries never seize to amaze us.As Shakespear rightly articulated :”Infinite Vividity” must be expected from some scenarios staring down into what brain constitutes.Modeling complexity arising through basic elements present within all organisms seems an admirable challenge.So next time just appreciate this beautiful gift mother nature gave.Everybody’s unique working implies nothing less than marvels.