How to read usg report?

Greetings, fellow earthlings! You may have found yourself staring at a medical report written in hieroglyphs you don’t understand. Fear not! Today we will be diving into the world of ultrasound reports and learning how to decipher them.

What is an Ultrasound?

Before we dive deep into the magical realm of ultrasounds (spoiler alert: it’s not actually magic), let’s first get acquainted with what exactly an ultrasound is. An ultrasound is a painless diagnostic tool that uses sound waves to create images of your internal organs and structures.

Now, onto decoding those pesky ultrasound reports!

The Basics

Ultrasounds can produce multiple types of images such as 2D or 3D. These reports mainly use standard 2D black and white imaging technology. Here are some key terms you’ll come across:


The transducer is the handheld device used by technicians during an ultrasound exam. It emits high-frequency sound waves which then bounce off your internal organs and return back as echoes forming images on a computer screen for interpretation.


Not to be confused with waiting patiently for Father Time to gift us wrinkles, gain refers to adjusting image brightness on the monitor display so that different shades of grey offer increased levels in contrast between tissues varying from bone-density tissues like muscle tissue usually appear dark gray while fat appears light gray.

Reading Your Ultrasound Report Like A Pro

Location Matters!

Knowing what part of your body which was imaged when undergoing sonography aided diagnostic report comprehension- here’s all you need know;


You’ll find this section under words similar or synonymous with ‘upper abdominopelvic region.’ This part indicates if abnormalities were spotted within:
These findings usually come under words/abbreviations like; hyperechoic, hypoechoic or heterogeneous.


This sections checks the abdominal cavity around reproductive organs in women- and the bladder area. Words to note are somewhat close to;
endo (indicating endometrial thickness),
adnexal masses (ovarian cysts).

#### Obstetrics Ultrasound Reports

When it comes down to obstetrical USGs there’s a little more info one ought to keep an eye out for- namely:

Gestational Age

Technicians assess gestational age by measuring fetal crown-rump length or head circumference. Developmental milestones, such as when you can detect a heartbeat and what signs indicate healthy development are indicated from information within this section of your report.

Fetal Anatomy

Once your ultrasound technician has determined how far along you are in pregnancy, they will move onto accessing the fetus’ anatomy itself. They’ll be on the lookout for any potential anomalies such Hydrocephalus – swimming pool head -, Spina bifida – hole in spine-, Clubfoot etc.


After identifying structures inside images taken during sonography- proper interpretations using said results need explanation too! Clear interpretations take into consideration factors such as:

  • Size: comparison is done with normative data typically provided on most reports indicating percentiles based on gender, parent’s heights at birth amongst other things relating weight.
  • Location: checking if organ placement is normal relative to surroundings/extremities especially crucial in cases where tumor growths could affect surrounding areas.
  • Appearance: structural components compared against expected tissue consistency e.g tumors vs fibroid mass diagnosis have significant repercussions-Cirrhosis also presents certain unique features usually highlighted here although not limited too!

After examining all three factors above, Doctors tend stick two possible findings;

1) ‘Normal’: self-explanatory finding- everything appears as it should- patients advised to maintain a steady stream of water and diet etc usually mandatory.

2) ‘Abnormal’ : here comes the tricky part. Abnormal findings on reports not necessarily equate negative diagnoses! For instance, a patient could have an asymptomatic fibroid which may generate abnormal report readings that indicate nothing worth worrying about is discovered.


To help drill in what we’ve learned so far let’s go through some cases together, guess normal vs. abnormal diagnosis!

Case 1

Report Diagnosis:

“A well-circumscribed hypoechoic solid mass located within the upper pole of the right kidney measuring 35 cm greatest transverse diameter with no parenchymal or peri-renal changes”

Is this normal or abnormal?

Answer: Abnormal – further testing required!

Case 2

Report Diagnosis:

“Gallbladder wall thickness measures slightly over >4mm causing mild gall bladder distortion while intrahepatic bile ducts are however not dilated.”

Normal or Abnormal?

Answer: Normal – keep up healthy habits including ab clear sonography practices

Case 3

Report Diagnosis:

“An ovoid hyperechoic solid lesion has been detected in uterine muscle”

Normal or Abnormal?

Answer: Could be both; confusing aren’t doctors? It just depends on whether said growth has led to unwonted changes like pushing neighboring organs around causing complications then maybe a confirmation test would follow.

Wrapping Up

It’s crucial one understands their ultrasound results’ contents thoroughly considering various outcomes coming from interpreting your physician plays more than meets eye, even very minor abnormalities can harbour wider symptoms/problems later down line which leaves prevention way harder without timely intervention!

Decode those reports carefully and stay healthy my homies!

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