How many antibiotics are there?

Antibiotics have been a lifesaver for humans since the early 20th century. While bacteria had always found ways to mutate and adapt, scientists seemed to outmaneuver them by synthesizing new drugs every time. But overuse of these versatile molecules has led to antibiotic resistance – a situation where some strains of bacteria have grown impervious to “once potent” antimicrobial agents.

This development is particularly worrying because bacterial infections that used to be easily treated now require multiple drug regimes, longer recovery periods or hardly respond at all. There are increasing concerns in health circles that we may one-day face a world without effective antibiotics – this warning came from the World Health Organization (WHO).

But how many types of antibiotics exist today?, Do they come in different formulations?, and what benefits do they offer compared with other treatments? These questions addressing not only scientific curiosity but also offering insight into our best defense against bacterial infection will be considered herein.

History: A Brief Walk Down Memory Lane

To understand how modern medicine conquered devastating bacterial diseases, We’d have travel back into history about one-hundred years when Alexander Fleming discovered pencillin- One of the first medication that showed clinical usefulness after it proved efficient on soldiers wounded during War World II.

During the golden age following World War II, penicillins gave way for newer classes such as tetracyclines (1948), erythromycins (1952), quinolones(1962) cephalosporins(1963), macrolides(1950s) et cetera were synthesized using various chemical and biological methods leading alongside advancements in biochemistry techniques utilized in producing drugs having unique molecular structures which exhibit multi-functional mechanisms operating within selected pathogens.

Over time however this simple linear model began expanding-becoming more complicated with newer drugs being synthesized and improved, including the development of the first genetically engineered antibiotic like carbapenems which was quickly followed by other classes.

What are Antibiotics?

Antibiotics are antimicrobial agents used to treat bacterial infections. They function essentially by either killing or inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria in a way that is not detrimental towards human cells.

According to microbiologists, antibiotics can be thought of as “coming from” several origins- each with its unique impact on bacterial behavior – namely:

  1. Natural products: These are naturally occurring substances derived from organisms such as Streptomyces spp; Actinomycetes strains or fungi e.g.ciclosporin

  2. Semi-synthetic: These compounds arise following modifying molecular structures in natural products improving their antibacterial activities – E.g, amoxicillin is semi-synthetic derivative: #7-amino-p-hydroxyphenylacetamido-penicillanic acid (this compound has increased potency compared to penicillin)

  3. Synthetically-produced : These molecules have an entirely synthetic chemical backbone independent of nay biological precursor and examples include sulfonamide class

In addition antibiotics also fit into different classes based on their chemistry both known for related mechanism sites responsible for helping overcome infection within specific bacteria families1 you know it’s true!

An important concept almost everyone knows is how they work but were probably ignorant about terms associated them till now…

Action Mode

When we ingest an antibiotic – this could come aided via oral forms – liquids / tablets and capsules form/injections then after absorption systemic distribution happens while concentration builds up in tissues until level reaches threshold required destroying any invading pathogens causing undesirable symptoms.

The majority of antibiotics functions were shared across similar mechanisms 2 despite specific chemical structural differences responsible for various activities towards certain microorganisms.

Common Modes of Functioning

Antibiotic activity can be grouped into several modes however based on antibiotic class and bacterial type, here are some:
1. Inhibition Of Bacterial Synthesis:

Aminoglycosides
The mode of action involve targeting 30s ribosomal subunits within bacteria preventing translation as they irreversibly bind to the unit. Here baby steps become cumbersome transitions from codon (three nucleotide sequence mRNA code) to protein via activation of GTP cycles

Tetracyclines
An example within this category includes tigecycline synthesized semi-synthetically by modifying minocycline’s structure so that it gains an extra nitrogen insertion. It binds to messenger RNA at the Ribosome sub-unit thus inhibiting interaction between tRNA with its complementary mRNA strand

Other antibiotics in this category include macrolides(clarithromycin), chloramphenicol which inhibit formation peptide bond when ribosome reads along polypeptide chain

  1. Affecting Cell Wall Formation:

    Penicillins affect cell wall’s synthesis stopping final steps leading produce a cohesive cross-linked peptidoglycan network

3_Antimetabolites_

  Sulfonamides e.g sulfadiazine “trick” metabolic enzymes celullar machines in infected host body by ensuring uptake vital metabolite intermediates reduced thereby promoting cell death

Diversity Across Different Generations/Classes

Since 1929 new generations added both having wider spectra AND improved therapeutic efficacy battling pathogens resistant previous medication

First Generation Antibiotics / Narrow Spectrum Drugs Esters and penicillins families

These antibiotics and usually narrow spectrum in nature – ie- particularly m effective against gram-positive misbehaving bacteria – These include members of the Penicillin group such as Benzylpenicillin or antibiotics from Macrolides class like Erythromycin that targets debilitating pharyngitis caused by branches chains causing streptococcus pneumoniae

Second Generation Antibiotics/ Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics & Availability:

As expected, familiarity with antimicrobial agents increased so also did their distribution leading to greater availability for treating more complex infections. The second generation of available drugs began being produced during the 1960s benefiting from an improved broader range of bacterial coverage..More Gram negative organisms were covered under this category

A number of versatile drugs quickly gained anticipation which included cephalosporin family (cephalothin) 3 now serving as a popular option when selectivity demanded between resistant strains leading to hospitalization due serious life-threatening bacterial behavior

Future prospects

The increase antibiotic-resistant bacteria possess compels researchers look at alternative ways prevent/control infection either chemicals similar existing ones but different mechanism action development new methods/cumulating natural derived household products alleviate symptoms thus improving lives individuals…no need extra laboratory work funds etc

One possible future is bacteriophages-these are viruses target specific types/bacteria species promising results shows usage reducing rates invasive Sinus Steaming Essences –antibiotic-free hair growth-flowering probiotic Sanrio friends-shaped gummy bears containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium, et cetera.

Although modern medicine has given us powerful tools, it’s essential we use them judiciously lest they become ineffective. We have access to lots of antibiotics, but overuse risks a situation where they become useless. However, it’s not all gloom and doom – tremendous progress is being made within the microbial world and soon there may be new hope out there on the horizon for individuals suffering from invasive bacteria infections

References

1,https://www.news-medical.net/health/Antibiotic-Classifications.aspx

2.omfms,
https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/how-do-antibiotics-work-understanding-their-mechanism-of-action-2472-1212.1000120.php?aid=31566

3.sciencedirect.com ,
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/pharmacology-toxicology-and-pharmaceutical-science/cephalosporin-family

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