How blood glucose is controlled?

When it comes to metabolic processes, your body has a lot going on behind the scenes. One of these processes is blood glucose regulation. It might not sound like much fun, but understanding how this system works can help you keep your energy levels steady and feel healthier overall.

The Players in the Game

Before we dive into the nitty gritty details of blood glucose control, let’s talk about some of the key players involved:


Your pancreas is an organ that sits near your stomach and helps regulate digestion by producing enzymes as well as hormones such as insulin and glucagon.


Insulin is a hormone produced by cells in the pancreas called beta cells. It helps move sugar from your bloodstream into cells throughout your body where it can be used for energy or stored for later use.


Glucago.n is a hormone also produced by cells in the pancreas – specifically alpha cells – that raises blood sugar levels when they drop too low.


Your liver plays a major role in blood glucose regulation since it both stores and produces glucose depending on what your body needs at any given time.

Keeping Things Balance: Low Blood Sugar

When you hear people say they are “hangry,” there’s more truth to their statement than meets the eye. When our bodies don’t have enough glucose available (such as after extended exercise or skipping meals), our brains start sending out distress signals which cause us to feel shaky, weak, irritable — all things that make us want food! That’s because without food, our bodies go through a process called gluconeogenesis during which they break down fats or proteins to create new glucose molecules for fuel. If we continue without food though, negative health consequences could arise so thankfully there are mechanisms put into place that provide us with balance!

Amazingly ,the human body has multiple ways to raise blood sugar levels in order to avoid these negative health consequences. When your brain detects that glucose levels are too low, it sends a signal to the alpha cells in the pancreas which release glucagon into your bloodstream. Glucagon then travels around and sets off reactions aimed at raising blood sugar.

The primary method by which glucagon raises blood sugar is through glycogenolysis – this process describes how glycogen (a storage form of glucose) is broken down into glucose molecules and released back into the bloodstream for energy purposes.

Not only does our body make sure we have enough stored glucose available , but it also can create new one when necessary . This occurs because contrary to what people may think, carbohydrates aren’t always required for creating glucose: In a process called gluconeogenesis, our liver converts proteins or fats into new glucose molecules!

The Other End of The Spectrum

On the other end up from low blood sugar level lows lies high ones … Uncontrolled type-2 diabetes results when there is not proper management with elevated blood sugars remaining far too often above healthy ranges – this could lead to kidney damage over time amongst other things!

To keep dangers like that at bay, insulin steps onto stage as creates balance between cellular intake and utilization of food-derived source fuels ! How does it get accomplished though?

Insulin Production & Release

When you eat carbohydrates such as breads, cereals, fruits etc., they break down in your digestive tract while releasing their constituent sugars — most importantly among them though being glucose These newly-formed “sugar crumbs” travel to your liver where they either get immediately used up or stored away.. Your muscles latch onto their share proportionally as well based on activity level during that period!

During digestion however, Beta-cells within pancreas sense increases of plasma-glucose prompting insulin secretion simultaneously assisting hepatic , skeletal muscle uptakes and cellular assimilation of glucose out your bloodstream

Insulin Utilization & Link to Fat

The involvement of insulin with fat is complex and oftentimes misunderstood. When insulin stoops down into action mode , not only does it tell cells to absorb incoming glucose molecules but also signals adipocytes – known as ‘fat cells’ – throughout our body that they should uptake the circulating fatty acids within plasma.

A common belief may be that you have an easy time losing weight if sensitivity to insulin is low (a trait associated with type-2 diabetes) , however, this isn’t quite 100% true! While people lagging in sensitivity may struggle initially, their bodies are essentially underfed since too much sugar remains present despite higher cell counts as result – liver glycogen can become depleted over time bringing on its own risks such as producing ketone-bodies through breakdown of excess fats beyond demands.

Keeping Things Balanced: High Blood Sugar

So what happens when blood sugar levels push past those ideal ranges? Oversimplified answer: It triggers a cascade effect throughout various organs!

One factor in controlling blood sugar levels at this point involves storing excess glucose that needs convert back from useful forms contained within organs like skeletal muscle or liver . Without storage space available, these tissues could face detrimental outcomes.

On the other hand though, once those places have filled because so much extra energy was brought into them — our focus points over to fat-cell metabolism where; again via insulin helps us store energy within local spaces mainly adipose tissue !

However, beyond just prompt entrance into necessary fuel storage presents potential shutdown modes for both glitch-glucagon functionalities and societal normalcy eating behaviours!

As tricky as high blood sugar balance sounds one way we can tilt scenario more towards optimal zone lies having a diverse diet loaded predominately macronutrients which tend being slow released carbohydrates.


Blood glucose regulation might sound confusing at first glance BUT!!! dont worry its complexity exists for good reason! By understanding and balancing this intricate process, we can keep our bodies happy and healthy. From insulin, glucagon pancreas to liver… the human body has a variety of ways it adapts both to changes in blood sugar levels – from low to high.

Remember that there are no perfect solutions but striving towards diversification of your nutrtitional intakes will lead you down a path towards optimal health regardless of which end of the spectrum you may be facing !