Can acute myeloid leukemia be cured?

Acute myeloid leukemia, also known as AML, is a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. It is a serious condition that can be fatal if not treated immediately. There are various treatment options available for acute myeloid leukemia; however, the question still looms: can it be cured? In this article, we will delve into the topic and explore all aspects of AML.

What is Acute Myeloid Leukemia?

Before we dive into whether AML can be cured or not, let’s first understand what it actually is. As mentioned earlier, AML is a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow (1). In this condition, immature white blood cells called myeloblasts are produced in an uncontrolled manner in the bone marrow (2). These abnormal cells prevent healthy cells from functioning normally which leads to many complications. Symptoms may include weakness, fatigue, shortness of breath, fever, loss of appetite, weight loss, swelling around the neck underarms or groin due to swollen lymph nodes(3). Early diagnosis becomes crucial in treating this disease successfully.

Types of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

AML has various subtypes based on different criteria such as genetic abnormalities (4) age / sex/ staging etc.

Based on Genetic Abnormalities

There are eight different types according to their genetics abnormalities affecting normal function promoting incessant cell growth forming clusters:
– NPM1 mutation
– FLT3-ITD + low ERG (carrying two mutations)
– Delayed peripheral blast clearance at day 15 – associated with higher relapse rates
– No cytogenetic abnormality
– Biallelic CEBPA mutations (inheriting one altered gene from each parent)
– TP53 mutations
– Low blast count AML

Based on Age / Sex

According to age or sex, AML is classified as:
– Pediatric AML (children under 15 years old)
– Adult AML (people aged over 15)
– Female-dominant detected

Based on Staging

Based on staging of the disease it could either be primary; characterized by excess leukemic blasts in bone marrow with greater ≥20 % cellularity, isolated extramedullary involvement, and increased WBCs count at presentation. Secondarily arise from previous therapy complications that triggered this cancer.

Can Acute Myeloid Leukemia be Cured?

Now let’s get to the main question: can acute myeloid leukemia be cured? The answer isn’t as simple as a straight yes or no.

Factors influencing cure rates

Various factors influence the chances of curing acute myeloid leukemia such as:
– Patient’s age
– Patients healthy condition
– Medical history and genetics abnormalities found during diagnosis.
However overall only two-thirds patients can sustain long-term survival.

Treatment Options for Acute Myeloid Leukemia

There are various treatment options available for AML depending upon various factors like medical history, patient’s health status etc:


Chemotherapy involves using drugs to kill cancerous cells in the body. It may involve administering via intravenous injections or oral medication according to drug sensitivity associated with pre-operative chemotherapy protocol.

Induction Therapy

This phase aims primarily reducing number of circulating malignant blood sugar cancers so that normal hematopoietic function begins again restoring complete remission state .

Consolidation Therapy

A follow-up after Induction therapy aimingeliminates any remaining abnormal cells in the body thus ensuring pathologic complete response

Stem Cell Transplant

Also known as the bone marrow transplant, it is done in advanced conditions and only involves younger age population mostly. This entails replacing dysfunctional bone marrow with healthy stem cells from a donor’s blood or other tissues that can produce a healthy cell lineage.

Targeted Therapy

This therapy aims to attack specific cancerous mutations found during induction thereby increasing efficacy while lowering side-effects.


In conclusion, acute myeloid leukemia is not an easy condition to deal with; but fortunately there are many available treatment options amongst which successful rate of cure always stands higher whenever diagnosed timely. Chemotherapy and bone marrow transplant along with targeted therapy have indicated positive results in various cases although risk of relapse still prevails over long-term follow ups.

So if you or someone you know has been diagnosed with AML, don’t panic – there is hope for recovery. Always remember its crucial to reach out for medical assistance as soon detected without wasting anytime because early diagnosis increase chances of survival drastically!

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